Exploring Craft Beer and Homebrew in Peru (Country Code 51) and the USA (Country Code 1)

Category: Beer History Page 1 of 2

St. Arnold of Soissons

Today is the Feast Day of St Arnold of Soissons, the Roman Catholic patron saint of hop pickers and Belgian brewers.

According to the Revue bibliogaphique belge (v. 1, no. 1, 20 January 1889), he was born in about 1040 at Tiegem, the son of a Flemish nobleman. He embarked on a career of arms, earning renown for his valour in tourneying, before “heeding the voice of God” and entering the Abbey of Saint Medard in Soissons.

According to the Revue bibliogaphique belge (v. 1, no. 1, 20 January 1889), he was born in about 1040 at Tiegem, the son of a Flemish nobleman. He embarked on a career of arms, earning renown for his valour in tourneying, before “obeying the voice of God” and entering the Abbey of Saint Médard in Soissons.

Later in life he returned to Flanders, where he helped restore peace to a land torn apart by wars of succession.  He established the abbey at Oudenbourg, where he died and was interred in 1087.  The Revue notes that “Students of his life report a great number of miracles.”

Other sources remind us that at Oudenburg, Arnold brewed beer and encouraged the local peasantry to drink beer, instead of water, citing its “gift of health”. One of his reported miracles was his saving numerous lives by insisting that the populace drink beer during an outbreak of disease from contaminated water.

Arnold of Soissons was canonized by Pope Callixtus II in 1120. He is often depicted carryring a brewer’s mash paddle.

The “American Brewers’ Review”

Just the other day, as I was conducting a online search entirely unrelated to beer, I happened on a couple of images depicting the 2nd International Brewer’s Congress held in Chicago in 1911.

Banquet at the 2nd International Brewers’ Congress (1911)

Following up on them I discovered that they came from the American Brewers’ Review, a trade journal published between 1887 and 1939 under the editorship, first, of Robert Wahl and Max Henius, and later of Arnold Spencer Wahl.

Besides being the founder of the American Brewers’ Review, Robert Wahl, it turns out, was a chemist who dedicated his life to establishing standards and procedures for the brewing industry. He was born in 1858 in Wisconsin, to Christian Wahl and Karolina Schappacher, both German immigrants – he from Bavaria and she from Baden.

Eventually settling in Chicago, he confounded, along with Henius, what would be known as the Scientific Station for Brewing of Chicago and as the Institute of Fermentology, before finally becoming the Wahl-Henius Institute. The institute was later expanded with a brewing academy, which operated until the whole thing was shut down with the advent of Prohibition.

As for the American Brewers’ Review, it was the official publication of the United States Brewers’ Association, and official organ of the brewers’ associations of Baltimore, Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Philadelphia, Pittsburg and St. Louis. It had started life as Der Braumeister but by July 1896 it had adopted its English name. The journal, however, continued to be published concurrently in English and German, although the German edition appears to have been dropped once the US entered World War I.

The American Brewers’ Review offers a fantastic glimpse of the world of brewing and malting in the 19th and early 20th centuries. It is chock full of ads and articles announcing the newest advances in bottling, labeling, packaging, and brewing technology, the newest malts, as well as the latest on the operation and status of breweries throughout the country, from descriptions of “steam” breweries in San Francisco to the fact that the Kunz and Blase brewery in Manitowoc had installed a “time-saving” electric machine for brushing its horses.

Advertisement in the American Brewers’ Review (1908)

It is also interesting to come across many familiar names – Stroh, Pabst, Heileman, Anheuser-Busch- back when they were just another brewery and not the behemoths we know today.

Follow the links below to read the American Brewers’ Review, scanned by Google from bound originals at the New York Public Library, and housed on the servers of the Hathi Trust:

v. 10 (July 1896-June 1897)
v. 11 (July 1897-June 1898)
v. 12 (July 1898-June 1899)
v. 13 (July 1899-June 1900)
v. 15 (July 1901-June 1902)
v. 17 (July-Dec. 1903)
v. 18 (July-Dec. 1904)
v. 19 (Jan.-June 1905)
v. 19 (July-Dec. 1905)
v. 20 (Jan.-June 1906)
v. 20 (July-Dec. 1906)
v. 21 (Jan.-June 1907)
v. 21 (July-Dec. 1907)
v. 22 (Jan.-June 1908)
v. 23 (Jan.-June 1909)
v. 23 (July-Dec. 1909)
v. 24 (Jan.-June 1910)
v. 24 (July-Dec. 1910)
v. 25 (Jan.-June 1911)
v. 25 (July-Dec. 1911)
v. 26 (Jan.-June 1912)
v. 27 (Jan.-June 1913)
v. 27 (July-Dec. 1913)
v. 28 (July-Dec. 1914)
v. 29 (July-Dec. 1915)
v. 30 (July-Dec. 1916)
v. 32 (Jan.-Oct. 1918)

A bit of Peru beer history

This is an image that I came across online.  It’s an early advertising poster from the Backus & Johnston Brewery Company in Lima, from back when telephone numbers in the city could be counted in the double-digits.

The poster remarks that the brewery -which started as an ice company- possessed a “magnificent” ice facility imported from the U.S.A., and that it’s beer-making equipment was “the best and largest in South America.”

Most notable, however, from a consumer standpoint is the variety of beers made by Backus & Johnston back then: Pilsen, export, lager, märzen, stout, and a dark beer labeled “Gato Negro” (black cat).

Decades later, their production had grown massively, and the company itself had expanded into a near brewing monopoly -the Unión de Cerverías Peruanas Backus & Johnston- having absorbed other breweries throughout the country.   At the same time, despite the expansion in the number of the company’s brands and volume, the beer variety shrank. By the turn of the century the only ones that had survived were the pale lager and a dark lager.

In the past decade, however, the company has started to break out of that straight jacket, albeit cautiously.  It has used its Cusqueña brand to float a few “special” beers: Cusqueña Trigo (pale lager made with a percentage of wheat), Cusqueña Quinoa (made, obviously, with some quinoa), and Cusqueña Red Lager.  It has also dipped its toe into the “top shelf” market with Abraxas, a beer it describes as a “super premium” and sells for 400% of the price point of its regular beers.

Why do we celebrate National Beer Day on April 7th?

Why is April 7th “National Beer Day”? Well, it’s because it was on that date in 1933 that the production and distribution of beer became once again legal in the United States.

On March 14, 1933, Representative Thomas H. Cullen introduced House Resolution 3341, which would amend parts of the Volstead Act, which was the legal basis for Prohibition. The bill passed the House it that same day, and made its way to the Senate, where it was introduced by Senator Pat Harris, and passed on March 16.

The final, amended, version of HR 3341 was approved by the Senate on March 20, by a vote of 43 to 35 (with 15 abstentions) and agreed to by the House on March 21.
On March 22, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed HR 3341 into law, with his famous –though perhaps aprocryphal- quip that “I think this would be a good time for a beer!”

The Cullen–Harrison Act, as it became known, after its sponsors, made it legal in the United States to sell beer with an alcohol content of 3.2% (by weight), and wine of similarly low alcohol content, which were thought to be too low to be intoxicating, effective April 7, 1933. The Act, however, did not in itself end Prohibition when it came to beer or wine, as it was still illegal to produce or transport such beverages into any state or territory, or into the District of Columbia, unless it had passed similar legislation to legalize sale of those low alcohol beverages in its jurisdiction.

Nonetheless, throngs gathered at breweries and taverns for their first legal beer since 1918.

April 7, 1933, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Arequipa’s “Cerveceria Alemana”

Another piece of brewing memorabilia that I recently acquired is a 111-year old cancelled invoice from the Cervecería Alemana (lit. “German Brewery”), which was located in the southern Peruvian city of Arequipa.

The attached voucher is dated 23 August of 1905, and is for 1 dozen bottles of Märzen beer, 1 dozen bottles of Pilsner beer, and the deposit on two dozen bottles. The voucher was issued by Donato Lister, and was made out to José S. Monje.

The cancelled invoice itself is dated 31 August 1905. The price for the beer is listed as s/. 6.40 and the price for “2 dozen boxed bottles” is s/. 5.60, but either through a math error or giving a customer a break, the price charged to Mr. Monje was just s/. 10.

The Cervecería Alemana was one of Peru’s earliest large-scale breweries. It was established in 1898 by Ernesto -or Ernst- Gunther, a German immigrant, recently arrived from Bolivia.

When Gunther and and his business partner, Franz Rehder, opened the Cervecería Alemana there were several other small breweries in Arequipa: Cervecería Germania, Cervecería Arequipa, Cervecería Gambrinus, Cervecería Teutonia, Cervecería Francesa, and one other.

The brewery was originally located on Mercaderes street, but in 1900 Gunther travelled to Germany, returned with new German equipment, and moved the expanding brewery to 177 Calle de La Merced, into the plant of the closed Cervecería Francesa. The Cervecería Alemana soon outpaced competitors, and in 1908 a second brewery was established in Cuzco.

The Cervecería Alemana was renamed Companía Cervecera del Sur, S.A., in 1935, and consolidated as the CERVESUR corporation in 1954. For years it dominated the beer market in southern Peru, with its two flagship brands: Cerveza Arequipeña and Cerveza Cusqueña.

The company was finally acquired by the Union de Cervecerías Backus & Johnston brewing empire in 2000. However, both, Arequipeña and Cusqueña continue to be made, and the latter can sometimes be found in US markets.

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